Companies that have been successful in this age of globalization have achieved that success both by selling to new, untapped markets and leveraging new, lower-cost sources of labor.


A. have achieved that success both by selling to new, untapped markets and leveraging

B. have achieved that success by both selling to new, untapped markets and by leveraging

C. have achieved that success both by selling to new, untapped markets and by leveraging

D. have been achieving that success both by selling to new, untapped markets and they leverage

E. are achieving that success by selling both to new, untapped markets and by leveraging


This question is based on Parallelism and Tense.


The sentence contains the pair of correlative conjunctions – both-and. 

To maintain parallelism of correlative conjunctions, each of the pair of conjunctions must be followed by a word of the same part of speech.


In Option A, ‘both’ is followed by the preposition ‘by’. However, ‘and’ is followed by the participle ‘leveraging’. Since the sentence lacks parallelism, Option A can be eliminated.


In Option B, ‘both’ is followed by the participle ‘selling’. However, ‘and’ is followed by the preposition ‘by’. Since ‘by’ is already placed before the conjunction ‘both’, it becomes redundant and causes a lack of parallelism. So, Option B can also be eliminated.


Option D contains the present perfect tense form – have been achieving – which is unnecessary as there is no sense of continuity to be emphasized in this sentence. This option also lacks parallelism. In this option ‘both’ is followed by the preposition ‘by’. However, ‘and’ is followed by the pronoun ‘they’. So, Option D can also be eliminated.


In Option E, the present continuous tense form – are achieving – is not consistent with the present perfect tense form – have been successful. This option also lacks parallelism. The conjunction ‘both’ is followed by the preposition ‘to’; the conjunction ‘and’ is followed by the preposition ‘by’. The placement of ‘both’ distorts the meaning and gives rise to the question of what ‘both’ refers to. So, Option E can also be eliminated.


Option C maintains parallelism by the placement of the preposition ‘by’ after each of the conjunctions. Therefore, C is the most appropriate option.