Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s, but they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease.


(A) they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease


(B) after the 1991 report that linked a reduced risk of heart disease with a moderate alcohol consumption, particularly red wine, they began growing again


(C) in a 1991 report, moderate alcohol consumption, and particularly of red wine, which was linked with a reduced risk of heart disease, caused them to begin to grow again


(D) with a reduced risk of heart disease linked in a 1991 report with moderate alcohol consumption, in particular red wine, they began growing again


(E) a reduced risk of heart disease linked to moderate alcohol consumption in a 1991 report, and in particular red wine, started them growing again


The sentence itself is made up of two independent clauses – 

1. Sales of wines declined in the late 1980s

2. they began to grow again after the 1991 report that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease


These clauses are joined by the conjunction ‘but’, which indicates the slight contrasting meaning. 

The second independent clause is made up of a subject + verb (they began) + predicate (to grow again after the 1991 report) + subordinate clause that describes ‘report’ (that linked moderate consumption of alcohol, and particularly of red wine, with a reduced risk of heart disease)

The two commas are merely setting off or helping to separate the phrase that provides extra information within that subordinate clause.


A quick look at eliminating the other options:


Option B can be eliminated because of the idiomatically inappropriate present continuous form “are growing”. One does not generally refer to the growth of sales in the continuous form. 

However, there are other problems with this option. One is the indefinite article before the uncountable noun – a moderate alcohol consumption. 

The other is the phrase “particularly red wine”. We cannot be sure which subject this phrase is modifying. 

The word order is also awkward. It is better to place the contrast immediately after the first independent clause and then add the modifier. 

So, Option B can be eliminated.


In Option C, the pronoun ‘them’ is ambiguous. While there are no other plural antecedents in the sentence, the pronoun is placed very far away from the noun ‘sales’. Moreover, the phrase “to begin to grow again” is also idiomatically inappropriate. So, Option C can be eliminated.


In Option D, the expression “began growing again” is idiomatically inappropriate. The more appropriate usage is “began to grow again”. 

The subject of the phrase modifier “in particular red wine” is vague. The phrase may have modified alcohol consumption if it had been as follows – in particular of red wine. 

The word order is also awkward just as it is in Option B. 

So, Option D can be eliminated. 


Option E conveys the meaning that a reduced risk of heart disease is linked to red wine in particular. However, the intended meaning is that a reduced risk of heart disease is linked to moderate alcohol consumption, particularly of red wine. Since the meaning is distorted and the word order is awkward in this option also, Option E can be eliminated.


Therefore, A is the most appropriate option as the order of words is clear. 


This question is largely based on sentence construction and meaning. We must try to understand the intended meaning and look for the option that conveys it most effectively.