According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management. However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM. 

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to 

A. point out contradictions in a new management system 

B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems 

C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems 

D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems 

E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

Doubt between E and D.

Let's look at the passage once again. 

Para 1- Acc to Drucker, TQM can work successfully in conjunction with other older management systems. Drucker adds that TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the "rationalist" school of sci management and the org. structure also. with TQM is consistent with the "HR" school of management. 

Para 2- HOWEVER, we cannot simply graft TQM onto these systems or other non-TQM management systems. ALTHOUGH TQM, like other management systems, shares the objective of increasing profitability, it requires diff strategies. The author then goes on to explain how TQM is diff. Our question here is what is the primary purpose of the passage? Option E would have been our answer if the passage had described what TQM is and then listed out the advantages of TQM over other management systems. 

But in the given passage, both in para 1 and para 2, the author is examining if TQM can work in conjunction with other management systems. In para 2, he says we can't simply graft TQM onto other management systems and gives us the reasons. Always try looking at the passage from the perspective of the author. He uses Drucker in the first paragraph to bring in his point stated in the second para that TQM cannot be joined with other management systems. So the whole purpose cannot be explaining the advantages of TQM over other management systems. Hence we eliminate option E.

D is the correct answer