Quite a tricky passage!
The first paragraph tells us that since the discovery
The second paragraph then talks about the traditional view- that 1st vertebrates were soft-bodied/ defensive
And the view of other paleontologists- that 1st vertebrates were predators
Para 3- explains the evidence and what the author thinks-
“It now appears that the hard parts that first evolved in the mouth of an animal improved its efficiency as a predator and that aggression rather than protection was the driving force behind the origin of the vertebrate skeleton”
Qs 1-According to the passage, the anatomical evidence provided by the preserved soft bodies of conodonts led scientists to conclude that
A. conodonts had actually been invertebrate carnivores
B. conodonts' teeth were adapted from protective bony scales
C. conodonts were primitive vertebrate suspension feeders
D. primitive vertebrates with teeth appeared earlier than armored vertebrates
E. scientists' original observations concerning the phosphatic remains of conodonts were essentially correct
According to your map, the first paragraph says that the anatomical evidence provided by the preserved soft bodies of conodonts led to important implications on the development of vertebrates. The next paragraph talks about the traditional view regarding vertebral skeleton and the view of other paleontologists.
Line 35 gives us the answer to the question- option D
Option B is a trap option that can be located in the passage but is not the answer to the given question as option B talks about the traditional view. Not the hypothesis that the evidence led to.
Please go through the question and options carefully and let me know if you need help with eliminating other choices.
2. The second paragraph in the passage serves primarily to
A. outline the significance of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains to the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton
B. contrast the traditional view of the development of the vertebrate skeleton with a view derived from the 1981 discovery of conodont remains
C. contrast the characteristics of the ostracoderms with the characteristics of earlier soft-bodied vertebrates
D. explain the importance of the development of teeth among the earliest vertebrate predators
E. present the two sides of the debate concerning the development of the vertebrate skeleton
Some discovery of fossil remains led to important Implications of the development of vertebrates
There is a group X that argued that 1st vertebrates were soft-bodied
There is another group Y that argued 1st vertebrates were predators
Options B and E are very very close. It is only the tone that will help us reach the answer. E is more accurate compared to B.
The use of the second paragraph is simply to present two views. In the third paragraph, the author supports one view over the other.
It is a very tricky question. Solving more such questions and making use of tone to answer a question will help you do better.
Qs 3. It can be inferred that on the basis of the 1981 discovery of conodont remains, paleontologists could draw which of the following conclusions?
A. The earliest vertebrates were sedentary suspension feeders.
B. Ostracoderms were not the earliest vertebrates.
C. Defensive armor preceded jaws among vertebrates.
D. Paired eyes and adaptations for activity are definitive characteristics of vertebrates.
E. Conodonts were unlikely to have been predators.
Para 3 talks about the 1981 discovery of other remains of the tiny soft-bodied animals (also called conodonts).
Let’s go back to para 3 and find out the answer to this question.
A talks about the traditional view. Eliminate
B- B can be inferred from Line 40-
“The lack of any mineralized structures apart from the elements in the mouth indicates that conodonts were more primitive than the armored jawless fishes such as the ostracoderms.”
C, D, and E cannot be inferred from the information given.